" The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas.".
— Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Volume 100, pp 119 - 120
Historical Surasena Mahajanapada in the political map of ancient India. Sainis ruled this kingdom up to the 11th century (right up to the time of earliest Muhammadan invasions).
Šúraséna was the grandfather of Krishna, and from him Krishna and his descendants, who held Mathura after the death of Kansa, derived their name as Šúrasénas or Shoorsainis.
—Alexander Cunningham, 
 Puranic and epical etymology
Shoor(saini) Krishna piloting Pandava Arjuna's chariot in the battle of Mahabharta.
Visnu Purana records the migration of some of the Yadava descendants and kinsmen of Lord Krishna from Mathura to Dwarka and from Dwarka to Punjab with the help of Prince Arjuna. These descendants and kinsmen of Lord Krishna are also referred in Puranic literature as Shaursaini or Shoorsaini  after Shoorsen (also spelt Sursena) who was paternal grandfather of Krishna and maternal grandfather of legendary Pandava warriors of Kuru clan. Saini is etymologically derived from this Puranic and Mahabharta term and is an abbreviated version of it. 
Shoorsaini (Surasena) kingdom
The area around Mathura was also named "Saurasena" or Šúraséna in ancient time after this prominent Yadu clan chieftain. This suggests that Shoorsena, the claimed mythico-historical founder of Saini clan, must have had enough influence to have the entire principality, or Janapada, named after him. Note: A later name of Surasena was also Sinsini.
The etymology and origin of the term can be broken down as follows:
- Shoorsen (also spelt in English as Šúraséna) --->Yadava king, the father of Vasudeva and the grandfather of Krishna and Pandavas
- Shaursen or Saurasen  in Prakrit or Shauraseni; Shoorsena in Sanskrit (also spelt in English as Surasena) ---> The kingdom ruled by Shoorsen or Sursen. Also see Surasena Kingdom
- Shaurseni or Sauraseni  in Prakrit (also spelt variously in English as Shoorseni and Shaursaini); Surasena  in Sanskrit ---> The Yadava clansmen and lineal descendants of Shoorsen or Šúraséna.
- Saini---> Abbreviated Prakrit version of Shoorsaini  or Shoorseni or Sanskrit Šúraséna
Note: The 'chaonsat-khamba' inscription of Kaman contains text in Sanskrit. Therefore, it uses the term "Šúraséna" to describe Saini royal family of Kaman. But Amir Khusro, a Persian and Hindi poet, uses its abbreviated vernacular form "Saini" to describe the martyrdom of Rajput commander Gurdan Saini.
 Mahabharta and Puranic references about Surasenas or Sainis
- In the Mahabharta, Sage Vyasa clearly identifies Krishna as Shoorsaini:
Foremost among all the Shoorsainis, the powerful one, Krishna, residing at Dwaraka, will rule and protect the whole earth after vanquishing all her lords, conversant as he will be with the science of polity.
It is noteworthy that Ved Vyasa identifies Krishna as Shoorseni even though he was to be in Dvarka which was far away from Shaursena, or Shoorseni Pradesh, the janapada . This signifies that Ved Vyasa is referring to a dynasty and a clan, not merely to a geographical region. It is the migration of some of the members of this very clan to Punjab that Visnu Purana records in section 5.
- Devi Bhagvat Purana describes Kunti as the princess of Shoorseni Pradesh:
....while the names of Pandus wives were, Kunti, the princess of Shoorseni Pradesh...
- Srimad Bhagvat Purana identifies Shoorsena as the chief of Yadu dynasty:
...Formerly, Shoorsena (Surasena), the chief of the Yadu dynasty, had gone to live in the city of Mathura. There he enjoyed the places known as Mathura and Shoorsena (Surasena)...
- Srimad Bhagvat Purana identifies descendants of Shoorsena as a distinct Yadava clan and Krishna's kinsmen:
... Assisted by the descendants of Bhoja, Vrsni, Andhaka, Madhu, Shoorsena, Dasarha, Kuru, Srnjaya and Pandu, Lord Krsna performed various activities...
- Yudhisthra identifies Shoorsena as his grandfather, and Krishna's father, Vasudeva, as his maternal uncle in Srimad Bhavat Purana:
...Is my respectable grandfather Shoorsena in a happy mood? And are my maternal uncle Vasudeva and his younger brothers all doing well?...
Lord Krishna, the ancient Saini patriarch in Dwarka. Sage Vyasa describes Krisna as Shaursaini and identifies him as the "foremost of all the Shaursenis" (Mahabharata, Book 13, Chapter 147)
- In Mahabharata Bhishma identifies Kunti as daughter of Shoosena, the Yadava king:
... There are three maidens worthy of being allied to Kuru race. One is the daughter (Kunti) of Shoorsena, of the Yadava race; the other is the daughter (Gandhari) of Suvala; and the third is the princess (Madri) of Madra.
 Epical Saini warriors
 Lord Krishna and Balrama
Foremost among all the Shoor(sainis), the powerful one, Krishna
, residing at Dwaraka
, will rule and protect the whole earth after vanquishing all her lords, conversant as he will be with the science of polity.
—Ved Vyasa, Shoorseni Krishna 
Sainis claim direct descent from the clan of Krishna and this link was also reiterated by Dr. Pritam Saini, a reputed history scholar who also a member of Indian History Congress  and served as Research Fellow at Punjabi University, Patiala. Dr. Pritam was simultaneously a community informant and a well regarded scholar of Punjabi history. Some other third-party sources also confirm this connection.
Some critics trained in the Western scholastic traditions have doubted the existence of a historical Krishna but such commentaries are now clearly contradicted by archaeological evidence found in the recent underwater excavations in the Arabian sea which have revealed a submerged ancient city as described in Visnu Purana. This evidence along with myriads of sites and clans found all over India claiming association with Krishna indicate toward the distinct possibility of a historical Krishna.
Krishna's military exploits and warrior spirit are even invoked in an anachronistic way in the Sikh tradition in the Chobis avatar section of Sri Dasam Granth.
In the Shaster Naam Mala section of Sri Dasam Granth, the names of Balrama and Krisna are invoked as follow to instill the warrior spirit.
ਹਲਧਰ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਬਖਾਨਿ ਕੈ ਅਨੁਜ ਉਚਰਿ ਅਰਿ ਭਾਖੁ ॥ ਸਕਲ ਨਾਮ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਬਾਨ ਕੇ ਚੀਨ ਚਤੁਰ ਚਿਤ ਰਾਖੁ ॥੧੪੧॥
हलधर शबद बखानि कै अनुज उचरि अरि भाखु ॥ सकल नाम स्री बान के चीन चतुर चित राखु ॥१४१॥
After speaking the word "Haldhar" (Balrama), then adding "Anuj" (Krishna) and afterwards saying "Ari" (Foe), the wise people know all the names of "Baan" (Arrow).
 Rajan Sini
 Rajan Saini (Sini), a character in the great Indian epic, the Mahabharata. Sini is the uncle of Vasudeva, the father of Sri Krishna. When Devaki, the mother of Krishna, was a maiden, many princes competed for her hand in marriage. This led to a dispute. In the end, a great battle ensued between two princes of different families over it: Somadatta and Rajan Sini. In this fierce battle Rajan Sini won, and on behalf of Vasudeva he carried Devaki in his chariot and drove her away. Reference FE pargiter's book Ancient Indian historical traditions, pages 105 to 107 This incident led to a feud between the two clans, the Sini family and that of Somadatta.
The rivalry came to the fore one last time on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, where Sini's grandson, Satyaki, who was a peer and friend of Arjuna and a famed archer, clashed with Bhurisravas, Somadatta's son, who was on the Kaurava side, resulting in the slaying of Bhurisravas by Satyaki.
 Medieval Saini warriors
- Gurdan Singh Saini
||"Saini was a great general and had led several expeditions into the country of Malwa and Gujarat."
commanded the Sisodia Rajput force of Raja Hamir Dev against Turks in 14th Century CE. He is described by poet-scholar Amir Khusro in Miftah al-Futuh
as the most feared warrior on the Rajput side on the day of the battle of Ranthambore.
Noted historians Henry Miers Elliot and John Dowson on page 541 of their work "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period" citing Miftah al-Futuh, a work by Khalji dynasty's royal poet-scholar Amir Khusro, provide the following account of a distinguished Saini general in the Sisodia Rajput army of Rana Hamir that took on Alauddin Khilji's Turk army:
The rai was in affright, and sent for Gurdan Saini, who was the most experienced warrior amongst the 40,000 rawats under the rai, and had seen many fights among the Hindus. "Sometimes he had gone with the advance to Malwa ; sometimes he had gone plundering in Gujarat." The Saini took 10,000 rawats with him from Jhain, and advanced against the Turks, and, after a severe action, he was slain...
The account of this Saini general who commanded a force of 10,000 Rajput fighters  and achieved martyrdom almost reads like an unqualified eulogy even from a hostile Turk perspective.
- Jamala Singh Nanua (Nanua Bairagi)
- Sardar Nanu Singh Saini (Jagirdar, Phulkian Riyasat)
- Gursa Singh Gahunia
Gursa Singh Gahunia was a Saini Sikh from the village Kotla Nihang. He was a close lieutinant and disciple of Guru Gobind Singh and is also remembered as among the select first few disciples who received baptism directly from the sword of 10th Guru on the Baisakhi day in 1699 AD and volunteer themselves as warriors for the Khalsa Army.
- Jarnail Sardar Sangat Singh Saini
- Mayya Singh Saini
Historical painting of a Sikh Ghorcharra
or cavalryman. Mayya Singh Saini participated as a Ghorcharra
in the Anglo-Sikh wars. After the defeat of Sikhs he became an insurgent against the English occupation. He was finally arrested and incarcerated.
- Senapati Shaheed Gulab Singh Saini
 Sourasenoi: Greek account of ancient Saini royal clan
A non-Indian account of this ancient royal tribe  has also survived. Magasthenes, the Greek ambassdor to India in 4 BCE in the era of Seleucids, identified this tribe as 'Sourasenoi' in Greek and as people of Lord Krishna whom he identified as 'Herakles'. During the period of Megesthenes' mission in Chandragupta Maurya's court, after the latter had gained control over all of North India, this tribe still possessed or ruled two major cities on banks of Yamuna. :
This Herakles is held in special honour by the Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe, who possess two large cities, Methora and Cleisobora
—James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, The Foundation of Ancient Cities 
... there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. Qunitus Curtius also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard
—Edwin Francis Bryant, Krishna: a sourcebook, p 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007 
 Legendary Porus as a Shoorsaini king
Porus's legendary bravery and immense physique is mentioned in all Greek accounts. Most scholars now concur with Col. James Tod 's view that Porus belonged the Shoorsaini sept of Yadavas 
who held the region from Jhelum up to Mathura as part of the greater Surasena Kingdom
during the period of Alexander's invasion.
....we have elsewhere assigned to Yadus
of the Punjab the honour of furnishing the well known king named Porus
—James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan 
There were no known Hindu textual sources regarding Porus indicating the tribe or ethnic group he belonged to. Several ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent have tried to claim him as their own ancestor. However, there is now a well-established academic opinion which suggests that he was a Yadava or Yaduvanshi king. Col. Tod was the proponent of this view which was also held by Dr. Ishwari Prashad and Dr. Pritam Saini, both renowned historians.
Col. Tod went on further to specifically point out Shoorsainis as the tribe whose king was called Porus, the legendary Indian adversary of Alexander the Great:
Puru became the patronymic of this branch of the Lunar race. Of this Alexander's historians made Porus. The Suraseni of Methoras (descendants of the Soor Sen of Mathura
) were all Purus, the Prasioi of Megasthenes...
—James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan 
More than one notable scholar have opined that king Porus, known for his legendary bravery, belonged to Shoorsaini tribe also based on the fact that his vanguard soldiers carried the image of Lord Krishna (Herakles as per Greeks) on their banners. Lord Krishna was both the ancestor and patron deity of Shoorsainis.
 Saini Rajput kings and general of early medieval history
From Ibbetson's own contradictory account: it is clearly evident that Sainis traced their ancestry to Rajputs from Mathura. This account is corroborated by Chaonsat-khamba inscription and Amir Khusro's accounts which carry more weight. Unlike Ibbetson's works, which are completely anecdotal and based on unsourced informant accounts, these are primary sources of history whose authenticity is above all dispute.
 Saini kings of Kaman: chaonsat-khamba inscription
A Sanskrit inscription was discovered on a pillar by one Pandit Bhagvan Lal Indraji in 19th century  on one of the well-known Chaonsat-khamba, or " sixty-four pillars ", in Kaman. This inscription was dated by Cunningham to be of around 8th CE
The inscription gives following genealogy of the Surasena (or Saini) dynasty extending over seven kings
1. — Phakka, married Deyika.
2. — Kula-abhata (son), married Drangeni.
3. — Ajita (son), married Apsarapriya.
4. — Durgabhata (son), married Vachchhalika.
5. — Durgadaman (son), married Vachchhika.
6. — Devaraja (son), married Yajnika.
7. — Vatsadaman (son).
The old fort of Kaman lies between two low ranges of hills on the high road from Delhi to Bayana. Owing to its position it is conjectured that it must have fallen an early prey to the Muhammadan conquerors. This account in way explains well the native account of Sainis of Punjab that their forefathers were the Rajputs of Mathura and migrated to Punjab after Muslim invasions of Mathura region.
Kaman is situated in the Bharatpur territory, 39 miles (63 km) to the north-west of Mathura, and 14 miles (23 km) to the north of Dig.
Estimating the probable dates of this Surasena or Saini dynasty kings, writes Cunningham:
"If we place Vatsadaman in A.D. 750 to 775, the head of the family, Phakka, will date from A.D. 600, reckoning twenty five years to each generation. As none of the names agree with those of the Yadava princes of Bayana, as recorded by the bards, it seems probable that these chiefs of Kaman, or Kadamba-vana, were only a branch of the famous Surasenas of Mathura."
It is also believed by the archaeologists that the Visnu temple of Kaman was built by Saini queen Vachchhika.
 Amir Khusro's Miftah al-Futuh account
Saini was a great general and had led several expeditions into the country of Malwa and Gujarat.
Gurdan Saini commanded the Sisodia Rajput force of Raja Hamir Dev against Turks in 14th Century CE.
There is also a well-documented and authenticated evidence from Turk historical annals  about a Saini General of 14th century who led a Sisodia Rajput force at Ranthanbore against the Khilji army. Amir Khusro, the noted poet-scholar in the court of Allaudin Khilji, records the presence of a very senior Saini General in the Sisodia Rajput army of Rana Hamir. Describing the 14th century battle between Turks and Rajputs, Amir Khusro writes the following about this daring and highly ranked Saini General:
The rai was in affright, and sent for Gurdan Saini
, who was the most experienced warrior amongst the 40,000 rawats under the rai, and had seen many fights among the Hindus. "Sometimes he had gone with the advance to Malwa ; sometimes he had gone plundering in Gujarat." The Saini took 10,000 rawats with him from Jhain, and advanced against the Turks, and, after a severe action, he was slain...
 During Mahabharata period: from Mathura to Dwaraka and from Dwaraka to Punjab
Ancient Migration Route of Sainis or Shoorsani Yadavas
According to Puranic sources, the Yadava kashatriya tribes in the Shaursena principality had to be relocated to the port city of Dwarka in Gujarat due to frequent invasions by Kalyavana and Jarasandha. There they ruled for sometime under the leadership of Lord Krishna and participated in the Mahabharta war from there. But according to the same Puranic legend, the Yadava kshatriyas in Dwaraka became intoxicated with the power and acted in such manner that caused them to be cursed by the by sages.
Visnu Purana records the aftermath of this event as follows:
....As soon as Krishna died, the parijata tree and the assembly hall named Sudharma returned to heaven. The kali era began. And the city of Dvaraka was swallowed up by the sea, with the exception of Krishna's own dwelling. "Arjuna settled some of the Yadavas in Punjab". But when he was taking the Yadava women with him, the party was set upon by powerful Abhiras
. Arjuna tried to repel the abhiras but found that he had lost all his powers. His strength had left him with Krishna's death.
 During Muhammadan period: from Kaman to Punjab
Chaonsat-khamba, or " sixty-four pillars " inscription of Kaman
||The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas.
— Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Volume 100, pp 119 - 120 
A Sanskrit inscription was discovered on a pillar by one Pandit Bhagvan Lal Indraji in 19th century  on one of the well-known Chaonsat-khamba pillars in Kaman. This inscription was dated by Cunningham to be of around 8th CE.
- Saini Kings of Kaman
The inscription gives following genealogy of the Surasena (or Saini) dynasty extending over seven kings:
1. — Phakka, married Deyika.
2. — Kula-abhata (son), married Drangeni.
3. — Ajita (son), married Apsarapriya.
4. — Durgabhata (son), married Vachchhalika.
5. — Durgadaman (son), married Vachchhika.
6. — Devaraja (son), married Yajnika.
7. — Vatsadaman (son).
The old fort of Kaman lies between two low ranges of hills on the high road from Delhi to Bayana. Owing to its position it is conjectured that it must have fallen an early prey to the Muhammadan conquerors. This account in way explains well the native account of Sainis of Punjab that their forefathers were the Rajputs of Mathura and migrated to Punjab after Muslim invasions of Mathura region.
Kaman is situated in the Bharatpur territory, 39 miles (63 km) to the north-west of Mathura, and 14 miles (23 km) to the north of Dig.
 Impact of Turko-Islamic rule on Rajput clans and their movements
The Muhammadan invasions drove a wedge through the Rajput principalities of the eastern Punjab. Some of the Rajput clans fled to the deserts of Rajputana in the south, others overcame the petty chiefs of Himalayan districts and established themselves there. A few adventurers came to terms with the invaders and obtained from them grants of land. The Sainis trace their origin to a Rajput clan who came from their original home near Muttra [sic] on Jumna, south of Delhi, in defence of the Hindus against the first Muhammadan invasions.
—Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, Rajput clan movements- The land of the five rivers..., pp 99–100
The condition of Muslim Rajputs was much superior to Hindu Rajputs in Punjabi plains. By converting to Islam and becoming collaborators of Turkish military and administrative machine in Punjab, they had managed to retain all of their pre-Islamic pomp and glory. They owned most of the land in Punjab while the Hindu Rajputs sank deeper into poverty and turned to agriculture and other occupations to survive with some sense of dignity, rather than converting to Islam or becoming collaborators of Muslim monarchs who were openly hostile to all Hindu interests. Only Pahari Rajputs escaped this economic and cultural degeneration in some way as they were insulated by the rugged terrain of the mountains. Hindu Rajput of Punjabi plains had nowhere to turn to except farming to retain some semblance of dignity. Rajputs of Rajputana saved their kingdoms by entering unequal matrimonial alliances with Muslim Moghuls.
- Excommunication of 'contaminated' Rajputs
These alliances were treated with contempt by self-respecting Rajputs like Maharana Pratap of Mewar and a lot of them chose poverty over the more convenient and tempting prospect of collaboration with the non-Hindu expansionist military machine. Maharana Pratap went on to the extent of excommunicating all Rajputs (proscribing all matrimonial alliances with them) who gave their daughters to Muslim rulers to save their states and he himself died in abject poverty in adherence to his kshatriya pride and principles, after a life-long warfare and suffering. This also resulted in the formation of endogamous groups within Rajput fold, i.e., those who would only marry within select clans, eschewing alliances with such 'contaminated' Rajputs even though the latter were now economically and politically much stronger.
- Nomadic and agricultural Rajputs
Some other Rajputs groups took to nomadic lifestyle  and other trades to avoid being converted to Islam or becoming, in their view, 'morally degraded'  by sending their daughters in the harems of Muslim rulers. Two prominent examples of these Rajput groups are Sansi nomads of Punjab and Rajput Malis of Rajasthan. The former were a sept of proud Bhati Rajputs of Jaiselmer, claiming descent from one Sans Mal Bhati, who became nomads after the sack of Chittor by Alauddin Khilji. The latter are a composite group of twelve proudest Rajput clans of Rajputana such as Kachwaha, Chauhan, Tanwar, Gahlot, etc who had fought Muhammad Ghori and his successors along with Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the Battle of Tarain and later, and upon being defeated and captured, were spared from certain massacre or conversion to Islam only with the help of a royal gardener who interceded on their behalf and represented them as gardeners. The Rajputs who were converted to Islam by force during this episode now go by the name of Ghori Pathans. But despite being able to avoid 'moral degradation' and 'contamination' these groups had to pay a price for it and they could not prevent their social and economic degradation. Descendants of Raja Sans Mal Bhati degenerated to such an extent, though strictly in socio-economic sense, that they are currently classifed as a Scheduled Tribe  and Rajput Malis, for their principled adherence to Hindu faith in the face of the greatest adversity, find themselves classed under the backward class category. Their current social status cannot take away their proud Rajput ancestry and bloodlines. Rajput Mali were officially recognized as sub-category within Rajputs even in the 1891 census of Marwar.
- Rajputs with dual identities and professions
There were still others, however, Sainis of Punjab being one of them (who escaped from Yadava kingdom of Mathura region predominantly), who were able to dodge the foreign invaders and escape to other secure places . They disguised themselves as agriculturists, while maintaining their militant Rajput character at the same time, waiting for right time and leader to strike back.
Thus until the British started giving them opportunities once again in army, all Hindu Rajputs of Punjab and some also in Rajputana subsisted mostly by agriculture, and some, like Mair Rajputs and Khatris, by trades such as goldsmithing and shopkeeping respectively. Describing the impoverished state of Hindu Rajputs in Punjab in the late 19th and early 20th century and their dependence on agriculture, writes Mazumdar:
"In the northern part of Shakargarh tahsil in Gurdaspur district, the bulk of the population comprised of Hindu Rajputs trying to make a living on bare and arid land...Access to military income allowed these Rajputs of to cope with the disadvantages of adverse soil and weather conditions."
 Sainis as part of Sikh militancy during Turko-Islamic ascendancy: Guru Har Gobind's call
A mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Har Gobind
Sainis turned largely to agriculture in preference to serving the Muslim masters, or converting to Islam, until advent of the sixth Sikh Master, Guru Har Gobind.
According to Sikh historical tradition, Guru Hargobind extensively toured the region that now falls in the present day Hoshiarpur and Ropar districts to put together a Sikh army to fight the religiously intolerant Mogul empire.
All of these areas, which had a predominantly Saini population along with Hindu and Sikh Jat, Kamboj, Manhas and Mahta tribes responded with great enthusiasm to Guru's call for soldiers. After this period, all of the rekindled Saini militant prowess was totally allied with and absorbed in the Sikh forces, which were to be formally institutionalized into the Khalsa Order by tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh. The impact of Sikh military ideal on Saini villages could be gauged from the fact that one of the volunteers for "Panj Pyaras", Sahab Chand, later Sahab Singh, was a barber from the village Nangal Shahidan. The village Nangal Shahidan in Hoshiarpur district was historically always entirely owned by Saini Chaudhries of Mangar got, with a handful other castes in the village. The village was founded by Nanak Saini of Mangar clan whose family and descendants owned all the land in and adjacent to the village for many generations. There is also the view that the village got its name after its founder, a Saini of Mangar clan and the family of Bhai Sahab Singh, who according to another view was from Bidar in Karnataka, was allowed to settle there by the Mangar chaudharies who owned this village. Nihang cantonment of Harian Belan is also surrounded by Saini villages (Kotla Nihang being one of them). Significantly, a Saini, named Sardar Gursa Singh Gahunia, from Kotla Nihang, was among the first few devotees to receive baptism from the hallowed sword of Guru Gobind Singh on Basakhi day of 1699 and to be decorated as a Nihang Singh by none other than Guru Gobind Singh himself.
An artist's imagination depicting Guru Gobind Singh sending his eldest son Sahibzada Ajit Singh to battlefield. Sahibzada Ajit Singh achieved martyrdom in this battle along with his brother Sahibzada Jujhar Singh and many other Sikh warriors. A Saini woman Sharan Kaur Pabla of village Raipur performed the last rites of all of these Sikh martyrs. Guru Gobind Singh also escaped to Machchiwara passing through Saini villages, instructing Sharan Kaur Pabla on the way to arrange the funeral of his sons and other Sikh martyrs 
Battle of Chamkaur and aftermath: martyrdom of Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla
The battle of Chamkaur was one of the most monumental battles of Sikh history and constitutes some of its defining moments. This battle had affected Sainis in a significant way as Chamkaur is surrounded by either Saini owned or dominated villages. Most of these Sainis were direct disciples of Guru Gobind Singh or deeply loyal to him and his cause. When Guru Gobind Singh escaped the fort of Chamkaur on the night of December 22, 1705, he escaped through Saini villages as they were the people he could trust completely and were more than willing to provide him a secure passage to safety. One such village was Raipur in present Ropar district which is only 2 miles from the famous Chamkaur fort where he briefly stopped on his way to Machhiwara. Here he asked a Saini lady by the name of Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla to perform the last rites of the martyred Sikhs, which included two of Guru Gobind Singh's own sons, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh . Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla performed the last rites of the two elder Sahibzadas and other Sikh warriors who had laid down their lives in the battle. Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla was so grief stricken that she herself jumped in the funeral pyre and ended her life. According to another view she did not self-immolate but was slain by Moghul soldiers when she was caught cremating the bodies of Sahibzadas. This Saini village also has the funerary shrines or 'smadhs' of the following Sikh martyrs: Jathedar Naunihal Singh, Mastan Singh, Santokh Singh and Malkiat Singh. In 1945 a Gurudwara was built in village Raipur to commemorate Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla.
There were further consequences of loyalty to Guru Gobind Singh for these Saini villages. Ranghar Muslims who were bitterly opposed to Guru Gobind Singh declared all Sainis of these villages to be rebels and attacked them. As a result there were violent exchanges between Sainis and Ranghar Muslims leading to loss of life and property on both sides. Nanua Bairagi's village Bhaku Majra in Ropar was also attacked by Ranghars and a taut detente prevailed between them and Sainis of Nanua clan for over a century afterwards. To avoid further persecution from Moghul authorities some Sainis from this and other villages escaped to Ghanauli and Nawanshahr. Some of them moved to an isolated island in river Satluj. Their properties were confiscated by the Moghul authorities. In around 1800 AD there was another pitched battle fought between these Sainis and Ranghar Muslims causing further losses on both sides and resulting in the second or third relocation of village Bhaku Majra. The 'jatheras' of Nanua Sainis can still be found in this village.
 Colonial theories & narratives
Largely uanware of the complex historical and mythological texts of India, colonial ethnographer Denzil Ibbetson theorized that the term Saini was probably of Mali origin, although he did mention that Sainis of Jallandhar claimed Rajput origin who had moved to Jalandhar doab after Gazni's sack of Mathura. Note: Jalandhar division of British Punjab comprised following districts: Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Kangra, Ludhiana and Ferozepur.  Based on an informant account, whose identity and authenticity he fails to verify or explain in the work, he tried to explain the term 'Saini' as probably derived from 'Rasaini', suggesting that the term Saini is derived from 'Rasai', allegedly meaning 'skill'. Since Sainis of some areas during his time were engaged in horticultural farming in limited manner in addition to (not in place of) ordinary farming he probably thought the term 'Saini' to be related with the horticultural farming in some way. Some other contemporary authors, taking a cue from Ibbetson's confusing and contradictory account have sought to theorize on the same lines.
Despite this superficial verisimilitude, based purely on a very limited and coincidental occupational commonality, which was also shared by many other Jat and Rajput communities of Punjab, there are clear indications within his text that he regarded Sainis and Malis to be different communities. Ibbetson also did not fail to record that Sainis did not intermarry with Malis. Census of 1881, in which Ibbetson played significant role, also records Sainis and Malis as distinct communities. Ibbetson and other commentators also recorded that other well known tribes were also invloved in horticulture and Sainis did other types of farming, called 'ordinary farming', besides horticulture. It must also be noted duly that Ibbetson and other colonial ethnographers were not able to make any clear distinctions between Rajputs and non-Rajput agricultural tribes in Punjab in the 1881 census and the mistaken association of Sainis with Malis was in keeping with the general confusion in the census report of 1881. Owing to this prevalent confusion, by 1900 colonial administrators were left with no choice but to list all Rajput tribes of Punjab, without exception, as agricultural.
- Edward Balfour's account
However, in 1885 Edward Balfour, another colonial scholar, clearly identified Sainis as a tribe totally distinct from Malis, something Ibbetson also acknowledged later in his report. What is more interesting is that Edward Balfour found Sainis to be largely involved with sugar-cane farming instead of vegetable farming while only Malis to be involved with gardening. Edward Balfour's account thus gives further confirmation, in addition to contradictions implied in Ibbetson's account, that Sainis were understood to be entirely different from Malis even in the colonial times and that the association of the term 'Saini' with market gardening or horticulture was not accurate and was based on a mistaken identity .
- Limitations of colonial accounts
Apart from contradicting themselves and each other, colonial theories, and all their later derivatives in the foregoing citations, have severe limitations in the fact that the colonial ethnographical works of Ibbetson et al. are thoroughly devoid of any scholarly citations and references from reliable historical texts. They appear to be generally based on hearsay (often unreliable) and subjective opinions of the contemporary informants, not all of whom could be assumed to have been free from ignorance and malice toward other communities they were giving testimony about. Ibbetson's ethnographical work does not even qualify as a proper secondary source by the accepted standards of historiography as it based largely on ancedotal accounts. It will not be out of the line to be reminded here that Ibbetson, Purser and Rose et al. were simply civil servants of colonial era and were neither qualified anthropologists nor sociologists, and their ethnographical works, based strictly on crude census techniques of colonial era, lacking the academic rigour needed for peer-reviewed or equivalent academic journals.
 Sainis as a 'martial race' during British India
Like most Punjabis, Sainis have a very high regard for Netaji. Saini INA veterans and their families fondly cherish his memory. Mr V.P. Saini is the General Secretary of the All-India Forward Bloc and President of Netaji Subhas Foundation.
He is also the founder of All India Netaji Revolutionary Party
. Late journalist, Ajit Saini
, was a close associate of Netaji who served in INA.
Sikh soldiers during Operation Crusader. Sainis fought in both the world wars and won highest gallantry awards, including a Cross of St. George
in World War I. Cross of St. George
was Imperial Russia's highest military award equivalent to modern Param Vir Chakra
and British Victoria Cross
Saini representation in armed forces escalated dramatically during the IInd
World War. Air Gunner and Bombardier, Kartar Singh Taunque, a Saini, who later rose to the rank of Wing Commander, was the first ever personnel of Indian Airforce
to be decorated for gallantry. His name features in Limca Book of Records.
The martial race theory propagated by British colonialists has been a very controversial subject and has rightfully been disregarded as an instrument of recruitment policy for armed forces by Government of India since the independence. It was based on the now challenged assumption that there were communities India that were naturally warlike 'races' which possessed qualities such as courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness and fighting tenacity and were hard-working and skilled in military tactics. Further it was the assumption that these 'martial races' tended to be hunting or agricultural cultures from hilly or mountainous regions with a history of conflict, whether internally or with external groups, who were considered better capable of enduring hardship than the inhabitants of the hot, flat plains of the country who were thought to be unwarlike and unfit for military service.
Writes Mazumdar  citing Frederick Roberts, British commander- in-chief in India (1885–1893):
" Roberts was one of the main proponents of this new policy. The main argument of the 'martial races theory' was that all natives were not equal in soldierly qualities. Some races were superior to others. 'It is not a question of efficiency' wrote Roberts, ' but of courage and physique: in these essentials sepoys of Lower India are wanting'. As he bluntly put it, ' no comparison can be made between the martial values of a regiment recruited amongst the Gurkhas of Nepal and the warlike races of northern India, and those recruited from the effeminate peoples of the south."
British colonialists were obviously quite impressed by the physical attributes and fighting instincts of Sainis and accordingly listed them as a martial class along with other tribes such as Dogras, Pashtuns, Gurkhas, etc.
Sainis fought in both the world wars and won highest gallantry awards, including a Cross of St. George in World War I. Cross of St. George was Imperial Russia's highest military award equivalent to modern Param Vir Chakra and British Victoria Cross. Saini representation in armed forces, along with that of other designated martial tribes of Punjab, escalated during the IInd World War. Air Gunner and Bombardier, Kartar Singh Taunque, a Saini, who later rose to the rank of Wing Commander, was the first ever personnel of Indian Airforce to be decorated for gallantry. His name features in Limca Book of Records.
 Sainis in Indian National Army (INA)
According to a native account, a village in the now Nawanshahr district of Punjab was composed of almost 80–90% Saini population in 1930s. As per the anecdotal account almost 300 men out of the total population of 1800–2000 were enrolled in the British Indian Army and fought in different theatres of war across Europe, Africa and Asia during the World War II. If true, this would mean that every able bodied Saini man of the village was signed up for services in the armed forces. Some of these Saini volunteers, along with these Saini armymen, some of whom ended up POWs, eventually joined Indian National Army (INA) of Subash Chandra Bose and courted martyrdom and incarceration for the independence of their motherland.
Late Ajit Saini, the emiment Punjabi journalist, was one such INA veteran who was a close lieutinant of Subash Chandra Bose. Mr V.P. Saini is the General Secretary of the All-India Forward Bloc and President of Netaji Subhas Foundation. He is also the founder of All India Netaji Revolutionary Party.
Another well-known Saini INA veteran was Sardar Mehnga Singh who was also the secretary of Bhartiya Janata Party's Amritsar unit. He was imprisoned in France, Belgium and Great Britain before his return to India in 1946. He received commendation from Government of India on August 15, 1972 for his contribution to freedom struggle. He died in 1991. A road was named in Amritsar after this INA veteran. It is called Sardar Mehnga Singh Marg.
 Inam-holding Saini Zamindars during British era
The following is the list of some of the Saini Zaildars during 1880s:
- Chaudhari Jawahir Singh of Hoshiarpur  had 19 villages under him.
- Chaudhari Jaimal Singh of Dasuya  had 22 villages under him.
- Chaudhari Mohan Lal of Hissar.
- Chaudhari Nand Ram Saini s/o Zaildar Ch. Mohan Lal of Hissar. He inherited Zaildari from his father upon his death in 1906. He gave up this rank in 1921 to support freedom movement after which he became member of Congress. He was also head of Hindu Mahasabha for Hissar briefly before rejoining congress again in 1959. He died in 1973 at the age of 90.
- Chaudhari Bhola Ram of Bhola Chak 178, Baria (Punjab-Pakistan) 
- Rai Bahadur Chaudhary Dewan Chand Saini, MBE
Note: This list is not exhaustive. More information is needed for Ropar, Jalandhar, and Gurdaspur districts, and also for Hoshiarpur, over different periods of time before 1947.
Agriculture had been the major profession of Sainis since the Turko-Islamic conquest of North India. However after militarization of Sikhs Sainis once again joined armed insurrection against Turko-Islamic rule as part of Khalsa armies. Even among Hindu Saini families it was customary to raise at least one son as a Sikh and dedicate him to military service in Sikh militant bands spread all over Punjab, engaged first in armed insurgency and later in a full scale war against the oppresive Turko-Pathan rule. Agriculture and army thus remained main professions of Sainis since Sikh rebellion and conquest of Punjab, and when British civil servant filed the Land Settlement Report of Jalandhar division in 1880s, he found Sainis in increasing numbers in their original profession i.e army, especially in cavalry, in addition to being in agriculture.
Agriculture in Punjab has been practiced by all major forward communities, including Brahmins owing to various circumstances of history.
The earliest Sainis were settled in Punjab by Prince Arjuna as noblemen in self-governing and autonomous villages. Prince Arjuna shared maternal bloodline with Yadavas, whose sub tribe Sainis of Punjab are stated to be. His mother Kunti was the daughter of Yadava chieftain Sursena, the founding father of Saini sub tribe of Yaduvanshi kshatriyas.
The later Saini migration to Punjab happened around the time of the earliest Turk invasions when the post-Kanishka Yadava or Surasena kingdoms of Mathura and Bayana were lost to Muslim invaders. The Sainis of Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur districts claim to be the descendants of the Rajputs of the Yaduvanshi or Surasena lineage who ruled these kingdoms, who escaped to these areas to avoid forced conversion to Islam.
Sainis continued to show their martial instincts whenever opportunities arose. They also actively aided Guru Gobind Singh's army and joined his army in good numbers. Some of the Saini dominated districts in Punjab were (and still are) the most fertile ground for army recruitment during British and Independent India. Sainis can be found among all ranks of Indian Army, from the level of sepoys to generals. Scores of Saini soldiers also fought as part of Indian National Army (INA) under the illustrious freedom fighter Subash Chandra Bose.
Like any other Rajput background tribe, Sainis of Punjab have always been a meat-eating community. Even Hindu Sainis commonly use "Singh" as part of their names. Liquor consumption, another typical Kashatriya trait, had always been prevalent among them. Most non-Kashatriya communities in India tend to be vegetarian.
 Kshatriyas and agriculture
||"A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these means..."
— Laws of Manu, X:95 
As per ancient Hindu texts, agriculture is permissible to Kshatriyas under special circumstances  in the absence of opportunities in the military and feudal apparatus of a righteous Aryan king. Indeed, the service in the army of an unrighteous, or a 'Yavana', or a 'Maleccha', king was the biggest imaginable anathema for a concentious and observant vedic kshatriya in ancient India. A vedic kshatriya was not a mercenary soldier but a defender of faith and righteous order (dharma). All other kshatriya origin Hindu tribes in Punjab, like Minhas, etc, in the absence of opportunities in the armies of observant vedic kings turned to agriculture in some way.
In fact respect for agriculture as a profession in Punjab is best understood from a Punjabi adage that British civil servant WE Purser included in one of his land settlement reports  written in 19th century:
"Uttam Kheti; Madh Bopar; Nikhid Chakari; Bheek Nadar!"
"The best is agriculture, trade occupies a middle position; bad is service; begging is wretched!"
 Socio-economic revision of Hindu Rajput tribes in Punjab
Describing the tough economic condition for largely Hindu Rajputs of Punjabi plains, colonial administrator, J.A.L. Montgomery wrote:
By the pressure of circumstances, they are overcoming their aversion to agriculture, and even Jaswáls and Dadwáls are now to be found who have taken to the plough, and I have seen a Náru Rajput spade in hand, and drawers tucked up, turning up the soil of his field which had become covered by sand, a laborious process called sirna.
For the full seven hundred years in the history of Punjab, there was no non-Muslim king until Banda Bahadur stormed Sarhind in middle of the 18th century. In this period high feudal positions were only available to Hindu groups who either converted to Islam or had become Turk collaborators. It is not surprising that most of the Rajput tribes that were able to maintain their place in the power structure of the Punjab plains had converted to Islam. These included Jaral, Janjua, Salehria, Minhas, etc in large numbers who had predominantly converted to Islam. In the plains of Punjab there were hardly any Hindu Rajputs left, and those who were still in the Hindu fold had turned largely to agriculture and other occupations to subsist, rather than to curry favor with Muslim rulers who extracted Jezya from the Hindu subjects in order to create financial hardship for them to remain in the faith of their ancestors.
 Punjabi Rajputs inseparable from agriculture
Apart from Sainis, other Rajput or Rajput origin tribes in Punjab which were returned as agricultural tribes in 1881 census  are:
- Badwal (also a Saini sub clan)
- Dhodi Bhandah
- Minhas 
- Dhullu Bhatti
- Salehria  (also a Saini sub clan)
- Gondal (Rajputs in Montgomery, elsewhere Jats)
The Punjabi Rajput identity had become so much diffused with agriculture that Ibbetson prefaced his account in the 1881 Punjab Census Report by observing:
"line separating Jats, Rajputs and certain other castes (tribes) is almost impossible of definition."
He further wrote:
"...and Bhatti, Punwár, Tunwár, all the proudest tribes of Rájpútána are included in the name and have sunk to the level of Jat, for there can be no Rájpúts where there are no Rajas or traditions of Rajas."
By 1900 all of the Rajput tribes in Punjab were identified as farming tribes and most of these tribes were involved in horticulture in some way. Accordingly, as per The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900, all Rajput tribes in Punjab were notified as agricultural tribes.
 See also
- ^ a b c d "The Sainis believe that their ancestors were Yadavas and that it was the same lineage in which Krishna was born. In the 43rd generation of the Yadavas there was a king known as Shoor or Sur, the son of King Vidaratha....It was in the name of these, father and son, that the community was known as Shoorsaini or Sursaini." People of India: Haryana, p 430, Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994
- ^ a b c "Surasena was a Yadava. One of his descendants could, therefore, call himself a Yadava or a Surasena as he liked..." Chauhān Dynasties: A Study of Chauhān Political History, Chauhān Political Institutions, and Life in the Chauhān Dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D., By Dasharatha Sharma, p 103, Published by Motilal Banarsidass, 1975
- ^ a b c "In a four-fold division of the Hindu social order, the Sainis invariably claim a Kshatriya origin. Among different groups of Kshatriya, the Sainis are the ones who consider themselves Rajputs." People of India: Haryana, p 430, Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994
- ^ a b c d e "A few adventurers came to terms with the invaders and obtained from them grants of land. The Sainis trace their origin to a Rajput clan who came from their original home near Muttra [sic] on Jumna, south of Delhi, in defence of the Hindus against the first Muhammadan invasions.." The land of the five rivers; an economic history of the Punjab from the earliest times to the year of grace 1890, p 100, Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, [London] Oxford University press, 1928
- ^ a b c d e f g "In the Punjab in the sub- mountainous region the community came to be known as 'Saini'. It maintained its Rajput character despite migration." Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, p 108, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989
- ^ a b c d e "In Jullundhur the Sainis are said to claim Rajput origin...and lived principally in the Muttra district. When Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India their ancestors came into Jullundur and settled down there...". See p 346 of Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990
- ^ a b c "Surasena refers to an ancient region named after a Jadu raja who is believed to have lived before Krishna. Bayana (near Mathura) from where the Jadus ruled ..." Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins, p 54, Shail Mayaram, Published by Permanent Black, 2004
- ^ a b c d e " Before the formation of Bharatpur state the capital of Sinsinwars was at Sinsini. Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini' and its inhabitants were known as 'Saur Sen'. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time was known as 'Saursaini'. Shoor Sain people were Chandra Vanshi kshatriyas. Lord Krishna was also born in vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro'. ' Shiv Shani Sevi' words have been found engraved on one inscription. Yajur Veda mentions 'Shinay Swah'. 'Sini Isar' was found on one gold coin. Atharva Veda mentions 'Sinwali' for Sini God. The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas.", Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Volume 100, pp 119–120, SS Sashi, Anmol Publications, 1996/ Alternate Secondary Source: http://www.bharatpuronline.com/history.html
- ^ The Ancient Geography of India, p 374, By Alexander Cunningham, Published by Trübner and co., 1871, Item notes: v.1, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ a b Visnu Purana, Section 5
- ^ a b c d "As Bhadanaka-desa was almost coterminous with Surasena janapada, we may designate the Apabhramsa of the area as Sauraseni Apabhramsa..." Early Chauhān Dynasties: A Study of Chauhān Political History, Chauhān Political Institutions, and Life in the Chauhān Dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D., By Dasharatha Sharma, p 103, Published by Motilal Banarsidass, 1975
- ^ "During the Mahabharata age the region around Mathura was ruled by the Surasena dynasty." The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies, By Institute of Historical Studies (Calcutta, India), Published by Institute of Historical, Studies., 1983, Item notes: v.22, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 29 Aug 2008
- ^ "The Surasenas were Jadavas, or Jadovansis, to which race belonged both Krishna and his antagonist Kansa, the king of Mathura." Report of a Tour in Eastern Rajputana in 1882–83,By Alexander Cunningham, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885, Original from Oxford University
- ^ a b c d e f g REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882–83, VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, p 57, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885 ,Item notes: v.20 1882–1883, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ The history of India, as told by its own historians the Muhammadan period. by H. M. Sir Elliot, John Dowson, p 541
- ^ References to Sainis in Mahabharata
- ^ a b Mahabharata, Book 13, Chapter 147
- ^ "...was received with honour by the Surasena Yadavas who were his relatives." Prehistory and Protohistory of India, p 278, by Kailash Chand Jain, Published by Agam, 1979– India 367 pages
- ^ Devi Bhagwat Purana, Chapter2, p 41, Published by Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.
- ^ SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Cantos 10, Chapter Seventeen – The Supreme Lord Agrees to Become Aditi's Son, verse 27
- ^ SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Cantos 9, Chapter Twenty-four Krsna the Supreme Personality of Godhead, verse, 63
- ^ SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Chapter Eleven, Lord Krsna's Entrance into Dvaraka, verse 26
- ^ Mahabharata, Book 1, Chapter 110
- ^ a b c "It is evident from this that Krishna, Raja Porus, Bhagat Nanua, Bhai Kahnaiya and many other historical personages were related with the Saini brotherhood" Dr. Pritam Saini, Preface to Saini Jagat: Utpati Ate Vikas, 26-04-2002, Professor Surjit Singh Nanuan, Saini Jagat: Utpati Ate Vikas, Manjot Publications, Patiala, 2008
- ^ Proceedings – Punjab History Conference, Issues 22–24, p 520
- ^ The Panjab past and present, Volume 37 By Punjabi University, p 128, Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies
- ^ "Pritam Saini, a noted journalist and author of Punjab commented in the same paper (25 October 1975), "It is absolutely wrong to connect Razia Sultana's name..."Punjab, p 83, Author: Sukhdev Singh Chib Publisher: New Delhi : Light and Life Publishers, 1977.
- ^ Punjabi author Pritam Saini dead, Tribune News Service, Monday, November 10, 2003, Chandigarh, India/ http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20031110/punjab1.htm
- ^ "It is said about Balaram-Hercules that he came as a stranger to Greece from outside. (In my opinion he was Bhim of Harikula and Col. Tod also holds the same view). Yaduvanshis ruled here. 'Yehudi' is the distortion of 'Yadu'. In the land in which Saini Yaduvanshis settled, it was called 'Sinai'." Ghazni to Jaiselmer (Pre-medieval History of the Bhatis), p 42, Hari Singh Bhati, Publisher: Hari Singh Bhati, 1998, Printers: Sankhala Printers, Bikaner
- ^ Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island : An Excavation Report/A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and K.H. Vora. New Delhi, Aryan Books International, 2005
- ^ Sri Dasam Granth, p 1368, verse 141
- ^ a b c "Saini was a great general and had led several expeditions into the country of Malwa and Gujarat" History of the Khaljis, A.D. 1290–1320: A. D. 1290–1320, p 28 Kishori Saran Lal, Published by Asia Publishing House, 1967
- ^ a b c see page 541 of the above referenced book by Ellot and Dowson. Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=WN4NAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage&dq=Gurdan+Saini&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ^ A Comprehensive History of India : The Delhi Sultanat, A.D. 1206–1526, p 318, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress, 1957
- ^ a b c The Sikh Reference Book, pp 277, 410, 535, By Harajindara Siṅgha Dilagīra, Published by Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark, 1997, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 29 Aug 2008
- ^ a b c d According to Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo, Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshiped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. Qunitus Curtius also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard. Krishna: a sourcebook, p 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007
- ^ a b "This Herakles is held in special honour by the Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe, who possess two large cities, Methora and Cleisobora" Arrian, Indika, viii, Methora is Mathura ; Growse (Mathura, 3rd ed. 279) suggests Cleisbora is Krisnhapura, 'city of Krishna', ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES OF RAJASTHAN, James Tod, Vol. 1, p 36, Oxford University Press, 1920
- ^ a b "Puru became the patronymic of this branch of the Lunar race. Of this Alexander's historians made Porus. The Suraseni of Methoras (descendants of the Soor Sen of Mathura) were all Purus, the Prasioi of Megasthenes..." Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han, Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, James Tod, p 36, Published by Higginbotham and co., 1873, Item notes: v. 1, Original from Oxford University
- ^ a b Proceedings, p 72, Indian History Congress, Published 1957
- ^ a b "We have assigned to the Yadus the honour of furnishing King Puru, who opposed Alexander", History of India: (from the earliest times to the fall of the Mughal Empire), pp 86, 91–95, Indian Press (1947),Dr. Ishwari Prashad, ASIN: B0007KEPTA
- ^ "Pritam Saini, a noted journalist and author of Punjab commented in the same paper...Punjab, p 83, Author: Sukhdev Singh Chib Publisher: New Delhi : Light and Life Publishers, 1977.
- ^ "To convince the reader I do not build upon nominal resemblance, when localities do not bear me out, he is requested to call to mind, that we have elsewhere assigned to Yadus of the Punjab the honour of furnishing the well known king named Porus; although the Puar, the usual pronunciation of Pramar, would afford a more ready solution." Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p 283, By James Tod, Edition: 2, Published by Asian Educational Services, 2001, ISBN 81-206-1289-2, 9788120612891
- ^ Ghazni to Jaiselmer (Pre-medieval History of the Bhatis), p 93, Hari Singh Bhati, Publisher: Hari Singh Bhati, 1998, Printers: Sankhala Printers, Bikaner
- ^ Chandragupta Maurya: a gem of Indian history, p 76, Purushottam Lal Bhargava, Edition: 2, illustrated, Published by D.K. Printworld, 1996
- ^ A Comprehensive History of India: The Mauryas & Satavahanas, p 383, edited by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Bharatiya Itihas Parishad, Published by Orient Longmans, 1992, Original from the University of California
- ^ Excavating the eternal: an indigenous archaeological tradition in India. By: Cremo, Michael A.Publication: Antiquity,Date: Saturday, March 1, 2008
- ^ The Krsna (Krishna) Cycle in the Puranas (Themes and Motifs in a Heroic Saga), p 26, Benjamin Preciado – Solis, (Edition: 1984)
- ^ a b c d Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990, Page 58 & 346 Note(s): A) These references on two different pages best hightlight the confusion of colonial census officials and contradiction inherent in their account. On page 58 Sainis are listed as a tribe under Malis but on page 346 a separate category, distinct from Malis, is assigned to them with emphatic statements of page 58 giving way to a mere 'probability'. On page 346 further distinction between Sainis and Malis is reinforced by stating that: 1) Sainis do not intermarry with Malis ; 2) are a "little higher" than them in status; 3) engage in horticulture only in addition to ordinary farming (not in replacement of); 4) sometimes own entire villages; 5) and are less generally "merely market gardners than Malis". Subsequently, a claim of Rajput ancestry and migration from Mathura area is reluctantly acknowledged for Sainis of Jalandhar area. These diffuse and contradictory accounts, without any textual references from history, or any attempt at explaining the research methodology, greatly undermine authenticity, reliability and citable value of this colonial source. B) Also refer to Edward Balfour's 1885 account which reinforces Ibbetson's self-contradiction and states that Sainis were largely sugar-cane farmers (not market gardners) and that they were separate from Malis. Unlike Ibbetson, Balfour does not speculate but confirms the clear distinction between Sainis and Malis : "The most industrious are the Rain, Mali, Saini, Lubana, and Jat...The Mali are chiefly gardeners. The Saini occupy sub-mountain tracts, and grow sugar-cane largely. Their village lands are always in a high state of tillage." The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Edward Balfour, p 118, Published by Bernard Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: v.3,Original from Oxford University
- ^ a b c d REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882–83, VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, p 59, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885 ,Item notes: v.20 1882–1883, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ a b " When Muhammad Ghori captured Tahangarh many of the Jadon families disperesed and settled wherever they could find a home." REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882–83, VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, p 25, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885 ,Item notes: v.20 1882–1883, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ A Study of the Cahamana Inscriptions of Rajasthan, Anita Sudan, p 79, Published by Research Publishers, 1989
- ^ A Comprehensive History of India : The Delhi Sultanat, A.D. 1206–1526 / edited by Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, p 318, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress Published by Orient Longmans, 1957
- ^ Studies in Medieval Rajasthan History, p 20, By Manjit Singh Ahluwalia, Published by [Aligarh?], 1970, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 2 Nov 2006, 56 pages
- ^ "Krishna, who was the real chief of the Yadava, was attacked in this advanced position by the (Paurava) King of Magadha (Jarasandha), and was forced to fly to Surashstra, where, however, his clan were no strangers, since his brother Balrama was already settled there and had married the local King (Revata's) daughter"." The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review and Oriental and Colonial Record By Oriental Institute (Woking, England), East India Association (London, England), Published by Oriental Institute, 1898
- ^ http://www.mahanbharat.net/mahabharat/the-plot/epilogue
- ^ a b c "No Hindus were allowed to serve the Moghul government in any capacity, unless they turned Muhammadans; and stories are told are told of Brahmans, who renounced worship of idols and accepted the religion of Koran, being specially appointed to high posts and commands." Tales from Indian History: Being the Annals of India Retold in Narratives, p 109, By James Talboys Wheeler Published by W. Thacker & Co., 1881
- ^ a b "Hindu women of Rajput families were a consistent and conspicuous presence in the predominantly Muslim harem from the days of Sultnate period onward." Nur Jahan, empress of Mughal India: Empress of Mughal India, p 44, Ellison Banks Findly, Edition: illustrated, Published by Oxford University Press US, 1993. Also see: Rajput Ladies in Mughal Harem, C.M. Agrawal, Indian Publishers Distributors (2005) ISBN 81-7341-374-6
- ^ "In histories that focus on Akbar's ostentations religious tolerance and pragmatic politics is often forgotten that he stabilized the Mughal state only after decades of fighting. His most important conquests were that of the Rajput states in Rajasthan desert west of Agra, for these Hindu warrior clans commanded the best armies in northern India. Mughal generals erected towers of skulls – Timurid terror tactics – from thousands of slain Rajput troops who resisted Akbar's early campaigns. Their draconian practice persuaded other Rajput dynasties to submit, several offering their daughters to Mughal harem". The Cambridge illustrated history of the Islamic world, Francis Robinson, Ira M. Lapidus, Cambridge University Press, 1998
- ^ a b c James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, 2 vols. London, Smith, Elder (1829, 1832); New Delhi, Munshiram Publishers, (2001), pp. 83–4. ISBN 81-7069-128-1
- ^ a b The Caste System of Northern India, pp 25, 166, 174, 247, E.A.H. Blunt, CIE, OBE, S. Chand & Co., 1969
- ^ a b The Sansis of Punjab; a Gypsy and De-notified Tribe of Rajput Origin, Maharaja Ranjit Singh- The Most Glorious Sansi, p 13, By Sher Singh, 1926–, Published by, 1965, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ " When the Rajput soldiers of his army fell in battle against Shahabuddin Ghori and the empires of Ajmer and Delhi were destroyed, some of the Rajputs became captives and could see no other way of saving themselves except embracing Islam and they came to be known as Ghori Pathans. Some of the Rajputs were let off on the recommendation of a Royal gardner who represented the captured Rajputs as Malis." Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, p 107, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989
- ^ The Indian Journal of Social Work, p 172, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Published by Department of Publications, Tata Institute of Social Sciences [etc.], 1956
- ^ "One sub-category recognized among Rajputs is that of the minor agricultural castes which comprises among others, Sirvis, Mali and Kallu or Patel." The Castes of Marwar, Being Census Report of 1891, p vi, Hardyal Singh, Edition: 2, Published by Books Treasure, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ "One of the main explanation for different names Sainis are known has been the emergence of adverse political circumstances in history. While many powerful kings were responsible for naming the community after them, the constant invasions of by the Moghuls of Hindu dominated states, and the consequent need to keep themselves unidentified, compelled the community members to move from one place to others, take up different occupations...and when the need arose they as true Rajputs took up military service also. It is in this perspective that some trace the origin of the word 'Saini' to from Sena or army in need. " People of India: Haryana, pp 430–431, Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994
- ^ The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, p 25, Rajit K. Mazumder, Orient Blackswan, 2003
- ^ Flame of Freedom and Hoshiarpur District, pp 6, 157, 168, 175, 211, 224, 228, 232, 233, O. P. Ralhan, Research India Publications, 1992
- ^ "The Guru initiated five Sikhs, among them one Sahib Singh, barber of village Nangal Shahidan belonged to Hoshiarpur District".
- ^ According to some accounts, Sahab Chand, belonged to Bidar in Karnataka. However, according to another account, he was from Nangal Shahidan. See http://hoshiarpur.nic.in/. If the former view is held to be valid, it simply means that there were other significant martyrs from this Saini village.
- ^ a b "Because the village was founded by Nanak, the forefather of caste Saini Mangar, as such it was named after him." Footnote 31: "Eight generations ago Nanak Saini migrated from village Tikhani and settled at the place, now known as Nangal Shahidan and with the permission of the then ruler he founded the village." Journal of Sikh Studies, p 53, By Guru Nanak Dev University Dept. of Guru Nanak Studies, Published by Dept. of Guru Nanak Studies, Guru Nanak Dev, University., 1977, Item notes: v.4 (1977), Original from the University of California
- ^ Tak, Rahgubir Singh, Did Bhai Sahib Singh, one of the Panj Pyaras hail from Nangal Shahidan? Journal of Sikh Studies, 4(2), Aug 1977, 49–56. Also in Sikh Review, 28 (313), Jan 1980, 19–25
- ^ a b c Saini jagata utapati ate wikasa, pp 50, 72, 101, Surajita Singha Nanua, Patiala : Manajota Prakashana, ਪਟਿਆਲਾ : ਮਨਜੋਤ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ਨ, 2008, DK Agencies DKPAN-5413 ( HBD
- ^ a b The Battle of Chamkaur (22 December 1705), The Panjab past and present, Volume 20, p 276, Devinder Kumar Varma, Punjabi University. Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, 1986
- ^ The Social & Economic History of Punjab, 1901–1939 (including Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, Administrative Divisions of the Punjab), p 367, B. S. Saini MA Ph.D, Ess Ess Publications, Delhi, 1975
- ^ There is no such word as "Rasai" in Hindi or Punjabi vocabularies, meaning "skill". It simply appears to be a concoction of the colonial informant.
- ^ "Structure and change in Indian society:" (conference of the University of Chicago, 1965) by Milton B. Singer, Bernard S. Cohn, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, University of Chicago Committee on Southern Asian Studies,Aldine Pub. Co., 1968, p96
- ^ "Urban Sociology in India" M.S.A. Rao, 1979, p493
- ^ "...that some of the higher tribes of the same class (Sainis) will not marry with them (Malis)." W.Chichele Plowden, ( 1883 ), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p. 256
- ^ The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, pp 233 & 294, Edward Balfour, Published by B. Quaritch, 1885
- ^ "They do more market gardening than the Jats ....". Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990, Page 346
- ^ a b "Brinjals, gourds and sweet patatoes were grown in Gahon village in Hoshiarpur, and a neighbouring village cultivated cauliflowers for sale in the nearest market. Darling came across such 'progressive Rajputs' in Kharar tahsil of Ambala, too, who cultivated their own land and grew vegetables. In Thikranwala, an ex-cavalry officer was growing cauliflowers and another Jat Sikh was cultivating patatoes.", The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, p 34, By Rajit K. Mazumder, Permanent Black
- ^ "Vegetable farming is almost equally popular among Rajputs". Dimensions of scheduled caste development in India: problems and prospects, R. S. Tripathi, P. D. Tiwari, Published by Uppal Pub. House, 1991
- ^ a b The Punjab Alienation of Land Act. XIII of 1900 (Lahore: Amrit Electric Press, 1924), pp 146–9, Appendix A — Notified Tribes
- ^ "line separating Jats, Rajputs and certain other castes (tribes) is almost impossible of definition." Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, p 361, H.A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan
- ^ "...and Bhatti, Punwár, Tunwár, all the proudest tribes of Rájpútána are included in the name and have sunk to the level of Jat, for there can be no Rájpúts where there are no Rajas or traditions of Rajas." W.Chichele Plowden, (1883), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p. 243
- ^ "The most industrious are the Rain, Mali, Saini, Lubana, and Jat...The Mali are chiefly gardeners. The Saini occupy sub-mountain tracts, and grow sugar-cane largely. Their village lands are always in a high state of tillage." The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Edward Balfour, p 118, Published by Bernard Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: v.3,Original from Oxford University
- ^ "The Sainis are a class found in sub-montane tracts, whose villages are always in a high state of tillage, as a rule they are great growers of sugar-cane." Hand-book of the economic products of the Punjab, with a combined index and glossary of technical vernacular words ...Author: B H Baden-Powell ,Roorkee, Printed at the Thomason Civil Engineering College Press, 1868–72
- ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990
- ^ "...this view was held by some English writers who were neither sociologists nor anthropologists. They were simply administrators..." The Sansis of Punjab; a Gypsy and De-notified Tribe of Rajput Origin, Author's Preface, p xvi, By Sher Singh, 1926–, Published by, 1965, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ a b Netaji's followers float new party, to contest elections, Indian Express, Wednesday, July 28, 1999 
- ^ a b See http://www.punjabnewsline.com/content/view/7055/38
- ^ a b "I will give you here the names of three of those men who have earned fame by their heroism. Jamadar Gurmukh Singh, a Saini Sikh of Gadram Badi in Rupar, won the 1st Class Order of Merit and the 2nd Class Cross of the Russian Order of St. George for his splendid courage on the night of the 1st March 1916 when he advanced under the greatest difficulties, continually crawling forward and digging himself in." War speeches (1918), p 128, Author: O'Dwyer, Michael Francis, (Sir) 1864–, Subject: World War, 1914–1918; World War, 1914–1918 – Punjab Publisher: Lahore Printed by the Superintendent Government Printing
- ^ a b "The Order of St. George, Imperial Russia's highest exclusively military order, was instituted in 1769 and came to be considered among the most prestigious military awards in the world... The order was awarded to officers and generals for special gallantry, such as, personally leading his troops in rout of a superior enemy force, or capturing a fortress, etc. Before membership in the Order could be granted, a candidate's case had to be investigated by a council composed of Knights of the Order." Source: http://www.gwpda.org/medals/russmedl/russia.html
- ^ a b Limca Book of Records, p 343, Published by Bisleri Beverages Ltd., 1998
- ^ Rand, Gavin (March 2006). "Martial Races and Imperial Subjects: Violence and Governance in Colonial India 1857–1914". European Review of History 13 (1): 1–20. Routledge. doi:10.1080/13507480600586726.
- ^ The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, p 15, Rajit K. Mazumder, Orient Blackswan, 2003
- ^ "Jadeja, Saini, Bhati, Jadon", Martial races of undivided India, p 189, Vidya Prakash Tyagi, Delhi : Kalpaz Publications, 2009.
- ^ "The chief areas for Saini recruitment were the Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Jullundur Districts. ", The Golden Galley: the story of the Second Punjab Regiment, 1761–1947, p 313, Sir Geoffrey Betham, Herbert Valentine Rupert Geary,rinted for the 2d Punjab Regiment Officers ̕Association at the University Press, by C. Batey, printer to the university, 1956
- ^ Annual Class Return, 1919, pp 364–7
- ^ Annual Class Return,1925, pp 96–99
- ^ The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, By Rajit K. Mazumder, pp 99, 105
- ^ Forgotten Warriors of Indian War of Independence, 1941–1946: Indian National Army, p 658, by S. S. Yadava, All India INA Committee
- ^ a b Saini Jagat: Utpati Ate Vikas, pp 119–120, Prof. Surjit Singh Nanuan, Manjota Publications, Patiala, 2008
- ^ a b Final Report of Revised Settlement, Hoshiarpur District, pp 58, 59 1879–84 By J. A. L. Montgomery
- ^ a b History of Hisar: From Inception to Independence, 1935–1947, p 312, M. M. Juneja, Published by Modern Book Co., 1989
- ^ Saini Jagat: Utpati Ate Vikas, p 14, Prof. Surjit Singh Nanuan, Manjota Publications, Patiala, 2008
- ^ "Men of this tribe not seldom take service especially in cavalry." Final report of the revised settlement of the Jullundur District in the Punjab, p 84, W.E. Purser, BCS, THE "CIVIL AND MILITARY GAZETTE" PRESS, Contractors to the Punjab Government, Lahore, 1892
- ^ "...but there are few land owning Brahmins now left to whom the stigma [sic] of halbah (ploughman) cannot be applied." Gazetter of Hoshiarpur District, 1883-4, Compiled and Published under the authority of the Punjab government, Lahore: The "Civil And Military Gazette" Press
- ^ "Brahmins, although far behnd the Jats, stand next in order of importance; and whatever they may be elsewhere, here are very fair cultivators, their women work in fields, and in other points Brahmin zamindars of Palwal have abandoned their traditional customs.Gorwahs are Rajputs, who have adopted the custom of marrying brother's widow. As among Jats and Brahmins, to whom somewhat as agriculturists they are somewhat, but not very, inferior, men and women both work in fields."Punjab gazetteers, p 145, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves, By Punjab, Published 1883, Original from Oxford University
- ^ "The Brahmans engage for the most part in agriculture or trade, but some are extensive landholders." The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Hoshiarpur, p 454, William Wilson Hunter, Edition: 2, Published by Trübner & co., 1885
- ^ "The Rajput tribes, after a vain resistance, succumbed to superior force, and had to starve or become tillers of the soil." Musalmans and money-lenders in the Punjab.Septimus Smet Thorburn, Published by W. Blackwood, 1886, Original from Harvard University
- ^ "...Arjuna settled some of the Yadavas in Punjab." (Visnu Purana, Section 5)
- ^ "...had migrated along with and at the same time as Yadavas from Mathura (Surasena) and its neighbourhood and settled in Panjab." Nagas, the Ancient Rulers of India: Their Origin and History, By Naval Viyogi, p 147, Published by Originals, 2002
- ^ "Both men and women are non-vegetarian." People of India, National Series Volume VI, India's Communities N-Z, p 3090, KS Singh, Anthropological Survey of India, Oxford University Press, 1998
- ^ a b Laws of Manu, Chapter X, Verses 90, 95, 116
- ^ "But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;(Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans" Manusamriti, Chapter- X, 43–45
- ^ "They call them mlechha, i.e, impure, and forbid having any connection with them, be it by marriage or any other kind of relationship, or by sitting, eating, drinking with them, because thereby, they think they would be polluted." Albureni (1964 reprint, pp 19–20, 185), From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia, Author(s): Marc Gaborieau Source: Anthropology Today, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Jun., 1985), pp. 7–14, Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
- ^ Final report of the revised settlement of the Jullundur District in the Punjab, Appendix XIII, p xxxvi, W.E. Purser, BCS, THE "CIVIL AND MILITARY GAZETTE" PRESS, Contractors to the Punjab Government, Lahore, 1892
- ^ Final Report of Revised Settlement, Hoshiarpur District, p 53, 1879–84, J. A. L. Montgomery
- ^ "Mahmud followed them up, and succeeded in capturing Raja Mal himself. The Raja was released on condition that he and his tribe embrace Islam." A report of the second regular settlement of the land revenue of the Jehlam district in ... the Punjab. [With] Maps, By R G Thomson, Published by Printed at the "Arya Press", 1883, Original from Oxford University, Digitized 17 Apr 2006, 290 pages
- ^ "According to popular legend, the Meos were converted by force. But they soon realized that it was of some advantage to be Muslim...Their conversion to Islam provided shield against ruthless decimation whenever the Muslim rulers raided Mewat." A Muslim Sub-Caste of North India: Problems of Cultural Integration, Partap C. Aggarwal, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Sep. 10, 1966), pp. 159–161 (article consists of 3 pages), Published by: Economic and Political Weekly
- ^ "...Manhas and Salehria Rajput became Muslims in large numbers on the borders of Jammu in the region called Salahr-tappa and Manhas-tappa of Baramanga. The communities like Jaral, Salehria and Manhas have a considerable number of converts." Jammu & Kashmir, p xxiii, By K. N. Pandita, Kumar Suresh Singh, Sukh Dev Singh Charak, Baqr Raza Rizvi, Anthropological Survey of India Published by Anthropological Survey of India, 2003, ISBN 81-7304-118-0, 9788173041181, 761 pages
- ^ "...Rajput tribes of the plains having for most part accepted Islam." Social and Economic History of the Panjab (1849–1901): (1849–1901), p 118, By G. S. Chhabra, Published by S. Nagin, 1962, Original from the University of Michigan
- ^ "The Muhammadan Rajputs are the next most important race of agriculturists in this district. They own some 118 villages... There are no Hindu Rajputs in this district." Report on the Revised Land Revenue Settlement of the Lahore District in the Lahore Division of the Panjab, 1865–69, By Leslie S. Saunders, Published by Central Jail Press, 1873
- ^ "The Siwalik chain makes a line of demarcation between the two great creeds; the Rajputs of the hills and the Jaswan Dun retain the faith of their ancestors, those of the plain have generally adopted Islam." The Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 454, William Wilson Hunter, Edition: 2, Published by Trübner & co., 1885
- ^ "From the days of the early Caliphs it had been a fundamental law of Islam that if a people were brought under Muhammadan dominion, but refused to embrace the Muhammadan religion, they must pay a poll tax known as Jezya, or otherwise forfeit their lives and property. Under this rule the Hindus had paid Jezya to the early Muhammadan conquerors of Hindustan; but the tax was abolished by Akbar, a contrary to the principles of toleration laid down by Chenghiz Khan, and no such tax had been levied by Jehangir or Shah Jehan. Aurangzeb reversed the policy of his predecessors, and ordered Jezya to be levied from all who refused to become Muhammadans." Tales from Indian History: Being the Annals of India Retold in Narratives, p 110, By James Talboys Wheeler Published by W. Thacker & Co., 1881
- ^ "One formidable rising broke out in the city of Delhi. A vast mob of Hindus blocked up the way to the mosque, and there were no means for dispersing them. At last Aurangzeb ordered the elephants to charge, and numbers were trampled to death. The massacre had its effect. The Hindus yielded to their destiny and paid the Jezya, although they did not cease to complain of the heaviness of the burden. But Aurangzeb was mad enough to attempt to compel the princes and people of Rajputana to pay the Jezya; and it is a marvel how nearly he succeeded in carrying out his object." Tales from Indian History: Being the Annals of India Retold in Narratives, pp 110–111, By James Talboys Wheeler Published by W. Thacker & Co., 1881
- ^ Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, pp 33, 39, 102, 154, 233, 239, 325, 240, 302, 534, H.A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan
- ^ a b "In due course of time their numerous offspring took to agriculture. Hence whole of their tribe came to be called, Manhas. The Manhas intermarry with Salahria and other second class Rajputs." Gazette[e]r of the Gujrat District, 1921, By Punjab (Pakistan), Published by Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1990
- ^ "The Saini do not appear to have returned any large clans except in Hushyárpur, of which district some of the largest clans are shown in the margin, and in Gurdáspur where 1,541 Saini showed their clans as Salahria." W.Chichele Plowden, ( 1883 ), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p. 257
- ^ "The Saini have a Salahri got." Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, p 848, H. A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan, Published by Asian Educational Services, 1990 2076 pages
- ^ Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, p 361, H.A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan
- ^ W.Chichele Plowden, (1883), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, p. 243
- ^ The other 'agriculturists' were Rajputs, Mughals and Pathans with some Gujars and Dogars."The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, p 149, By Rajit K. Mazumder, Permanent Black